Astonomy Vocabulary






is a unit of length which is approximately equal to the distance of the Earth from the Sun. One astronomical unit is equal to 149.6×109 m, 15.81×10-6 light years, or 4.848×10-6 parsecs.

The astronomical unit is used almost universally for measuring distances between bodies within our Solar System, and when discussing the sizes of planetary systems around other stars. For example, Jupiter orbits the Sun at an average distance of 5.2 AU.


Mercury at Longest Elongation West

Mercury at greatest elongation west

Sun, 05 Jun 2016 at 08:43 EDT (2 days away)
12:43 UTC

Dominic Ford, Editor
From the Inner Planets feed 

Mercury will be well placed for observation in the dawn sky, shining brightly at mag -1.9.

From Virginia Beach (click to change), it will be difficult to observe as it will appear no higher than 8° above the horizon. It will be visible in the dawn sky, rising at 04:36 (EDT) – 1 hour and 8 minutes before the Sun – and attaining an altitude of 8° above the eastern horizon before fading from view as dawn breaks at around 05:24.

Mercury in coming weeks

Over coming weeks, the distance between Mercury and the Sun will decrease each morning, and it will gradually sink back into the Sun’s glare, as the table below indicates (all times given in Virginia Beach local time).

Date Sun
rises at
rises at
Altitude of Mercury
at sunrise
Direction of Mercury
at sunrise
29 May 2016 05:46 04:49 east
05 Jun 2016 05:43 04:36 12° east
12 Jun 2016 05:42 04:32 12° east
19 Jun 2016 05:43 04:37 11° east
26 Jun 2016 05:45 04:55 north-east
03 Jul 2016 05:48 05:27 north-east
10 Jul 2016 05:52 06:09 -3° north-east
17 Jul 2016 05:56 06:52 -10° north-east
24 Jul 2016 06:01 07:30 -15° north-east
31 Jul 2016 06:07 08:00 -20° north-east
07 Aug 2016 06:13 08:23 -24° north-east

Mercury’s position

The exact position of Mercury when it reaches greatest elongation is as follows:

Object Right Ascension Declination Constellation Magnitude Angular Size
Mercury 03h18m30s +14°35′ Aries -1.9 8.2″
Sun 04h55m +22°35′ Taurus -26.7 31’31”

The coordinates above are given in J2000.0.

The geometry of Mercury’s orbit

Mercury never ventures far from the Sun in the sky since its orbit lies closer to the Sun than the Earth’s. To see it, we are always looking inwards towards the center of the solar system, close to the Sun. Mercury is said to be at greatest enlongation when it passes either of the two points along its orbit where it appears at greatest separation from the Sun.

As it orbits the Sun, it appears alternately in the morning and evening skies. When it is to the east of the Sun, it rises and sets a short time after the Sun, becoming visible in early evening twilight. When it is to the west of the Sun, it rises and sets a short time before the Sun, becoming visible shortly before sunrise.

Seasonal variation

Each time it appears in the morning or evening sky, Mercury reaches roughly the same angular separation from the Sun – this time peaking at a distance of 24° at greatest elongation. This angle is set by the geometry of how big Mercury’s orbit is, and how far away it is from the Earth. Nonetheless, some times of the year are more favourable for viewing Mercury from Virginia Beach than others.

It appears most favourably in the evening sky around the spring equinox, and most favourably in the morning sky around the autumn equinox.

This is because it always lies close to a line across the sky called the ecliptic. This is the line through the zodiacal constellations that the Sun follows through the year, and marks the flat plane in space in which all of the planets circle the Sun.

The altitude at which Mercury appears above the horizon at sunrise or sunset depends how steeply the line of the ecliptic is inclined to the horizon. If the plane of the ecliptic meet the horizon at a very shallow angle, Mercury will rise or set along a line which is almost parallel to the horizon, and a separation of 24° from the Sun along this line would correspond to a very low altitude in the sky.

The inclination of the ecliptic plane to the horizon at Virginia Beach varies between 76° (sunrise at the autumn equinox) and 29° (sunrise at the spring equinox). On June 5, the ecliptic is inclined at 43° to the eastern dawn horizon, as shown by the yellow line in the planetarium view above, meaning that on this occasion Mercury is very favourably placed for viewing from Virginia Beach.

The sky on 05 June 2016
Sunrise: 05:44
Sunset: 20:19
Twilight from 03:53
until 22:09
All times shown in EDT.

30-day old moon
Age of Moon:
30 days

Rise Culm. Set
Mercury 04:36 11:25 18:13
Venus 05:44 13:00 20:15
Moon 06:38 13:38 20:38
Mars 18:43 23:39 04:40
Jupiter 12:42 19:08 01:37
Saturn 19:51 00:53 05:51


The circumstances of this event were computed using the DE405 planetary

June 4, 2016 New Moon and Moon Cycle

New Moon

Sat, 04 Jun 2016 at 23:01 EDT (Tomorrow)
03:01 UTC

Dominic Ford, Editor
From the Moon feed

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The sky at 13:03 EDT on 4 Jun 2016

The Moon will pass close to the Sun and become lost in the Sun’s glare for a few days.

The Moon‘s orbital motion carries it around the Earth once every four weeks, and as a result its phases cyclefrom new moon, through first quarter, full moon and last quarter, back to new moon once every 29.5 days.

This motion also means that the Moon travels more than 12° across the sky from one night to the next, causing it to rise and set nearly an hour later each day. Click here for more information about the Moon’s phases.

At new moon, the Earth, Moon and Sun all lie in a roughly straight line, with the Moon in the middle, appearing in front of the Sun’s glare. In this configuration, we see almost exactly the opposite half of the Moon to that which is illuminated by the Sun, making it doubly unobservable because the side we see is almost entirely unilluminated.

Over coming days, the Moon will become visible in the late afternoon and dusk sky as a waxing crescent, setting an hour later each evening. By first quarter, in a week’s time, it will be visible until around midnight.

Constellations – Auriga the Charioteer

Auriga, the celestial charioteer, has neither chariot nor horse. Instead, he’s drawn as a man holding the reins in his right hand, with a goat on his left shoulder — the star Capella — and two baby goats in his left arm. Look for him cruising high across the southern evening sky in January and February.

The constellation has an uncertain origin. It might represent Neptune rising from the sea in a chariot. Or it might honor a legendary king of Athens; according to this tale, he invented a chariot that was drawn by four horses.

Capella is one of the few bright stars that is yellow, like our Sun. The similar color indicates that they have roughly the same surface temperature. But the light from Capella actually comes from two separate stars. Both are yellow, and both lie about 43 light-years from Earth. Each star emits dozens of times more light than the Sun.

Its brightness and position in the night sky have made Capella an important star in many cultures. An example is the ancient Mexican city of Monte Alban, where a temple was dedicated to astronomical observations. Some of its structures align with the point on the horizon where Capella made its first dawn appearance. That appearance happened on one of the two days of the year when the Sun passed directly overhead. So Capella might have acted like a warning flag, alerting the city’s leaders that the time for the year’s most important ceremonies was at hand.

June 9th, 2016 – C/2015 WZ (PANSTARRS) reaches its brightest

Comet C/2015 WZ (PANSTARRS) is forecast to reach its brightest, at around mag 10.6. It will lie at a distance of 1.58 AU from the Sun, and at a distance of 1.18  AU from the Earth.

From Virginia, it will be visible in the dawn sky. It will rise at 17:24 (EDT), 11 hours and 38 minutes after the Sun, and attain an altitude of 74° above the northern horizon before fading from view as dawn breaks at around 04:29.

For more information about its path across the sky, see’s emphermeris page for comet C/2015 WZ (PANSTARRS).

This event was automatically generated on the basis of orbital elements published by the Minor Planet Centor (MPC), and is updated daily (last update, 01 Jun 2016).

Note that the future positions of comets are typically known with a high degree of confidence, but their brightnesses are often much more unpredictable, since it is impossible to predict with certainty how they will respond as they move closer to the Sun. Magnitude estimates should be assumed to be highly provisional more than a few weeks in advance.

June 6th 2016 – Venus at superior solar conjunction

From our vantage point on the Earth, Venus will appear very close to the Sun in the sky as it passes around the far side of the solar system from the Earth.

At closest approach, Venus and the Sun will appear at a separation of only 0°00′, making Venus totally unobservable for several weeks while it is lost in the Sun’s glare.

Venus will also pass apogee – the time when it is most distant from the Earth – within a few days of the same time, since it will lie exactly opposite to the Earth in the Solar System. It will move to a distance of 1.74 AU from the Earth, making it appear small and very distant. If it could be observed, it would measure 9.6 arcsec in diameter, whilst appearing completely illuminated.

Venus’s reaching superior conjunction marks the end of its apparition in the morning sky and its transition to become an evening object over the next few weeks.

Greek and Roman Gods vs. The Christian God

Many different religions are practiced around the world.  Some worship many gods and some worship the One True God.  The Greeks and Romans worshipped many gods.  Christians worship the One True God.  If we look at the Greek and Roman religions we can see many differences with Christianity.

In Greek and Roman culture there are many imaginary gods. Some even call them myths. The Greek and Roman gods were quite spiteful and jealous. And since they were that way, they often seemed unpredictable. The gods of Greek and Roman culture reproduced in extremely strange ways, and would even interact with mortals creating many demigods. The Greek and Roman gods each had their individual powers. For example, Mars was the god of war, Poseidon was the god of the sea and Athena was the god of wisdom. Many of the Greek and Roman gods had human-like tendencies and many times they were not the best example of good behavior.


  On the other hand, our Christian God is real, and is talked about alot in the Bible. Our God is merciful and kind, and reproduced spiritually. Our God knows everything about everyone, and he is all powerful. God is constant and dependable, we always know he will do the right thing. God is above the human experience and his ways are something to aspire to. God is a good role model. 


So we can see that the Greek and Roman gods are very different from the One True God.  The Greek and Roman gods are petty and spiteful and are not good role models.  The One True God of Christianity is the perfect role model.  Different versions of pantheism and Christianity exist now and will exist into the future.