Ancient Roman History

The city of Rome began from small communities of Latin shepherds, they had settled around the seven hills in Italy near the Tiber River. The river helped them become very sucessful farmers and traders. As time went on the Latin shepherds joined together to to protect themselves and to invade surrounding villages. Over time, the city grew. Legends and myths began to be told about its beginnings. The most famous is the legend that says Rome was started by Romulus and Remus in 753 B.C. Romulus and Remus’ evil uncle left them on the bank of Tiber River, so they were supposedly raised by a wolf, later to be raised by a shepherd. The brother’s true parents were Mars, and a mortal princess. They were heirs to a throne of their settlement. But their evil uncle ruined that chance. When they grew up, Mars told them to build a city in the place they had been rescued. As they were building the city, they fought over the wall and Remus was killed. Romulus became the king of the city, and the city was named Rome. Ancient Rome grew from small settlements to one of the greatest empires in history.
Roman government went through three distinct phases beginning with Romulus the King After Romulus died, a series of six kings ruling ruling as a Monarchy ending with Tarquinn the Proud.  Tarquin the proud was cast out in 510 BC.  For the next 500 years Rome was ruled as a Republic.  At first the Republic was controlled by only the heads of Patrician families.  These families were descended from the Patriarchs of Rome.  They were important and powerful men.  The Patricians elected two mean every year to serve as consuls and administer Romes business.  The Senate was composed of Patricians.  Anyone not in a Patrician family was considered a Plebian, basically a commoner.  These two distinct social classes were formed based on the Government system and they were not allowed to intermarry. Later, plebians would be allowed to participate in government.  In 59BC Julius Ceasar took control of the Empire and was made emporer by the people.  Ceasars rule ended the Roman Republic and began a government of one man rule until the Roman Empire fell in 476 AD.
Roman engineering was far ahead of its time.  Ancient Rome had roads and aqueducts which made Romans more comfortable and cleaner. They helped the Romans travel easier to reach all the outposts of the Roman Empire.  This is the beginning of the saying all roads lead to Rome.  Over time there were over thousands of miles built by the Romans.  Romans built aqueducts to bring clean water to sites and villages.  The Featured Picture above is of a bridge that is also an aqueduct in Pont Du Guard France.  Over 200,000 gallons of water reached Rome everyday throughout the aqueducts… and even though you could see them all around most of the aqueducts and cisterns (water storage) was underground.  Other Roman feats of Engineering were great buildings used as arenas such as the Colloseum and the Cirucus Maximus for the entertainment of the people. The Circus Maximus could hold almost 750 thousand people, more than any arena today.   Rome’s engineering talent made Rome one of the greatest empires ever.
Bibliography
Doe, Jane. “Ancient Rome.” V̲e̲s̲t̲e̲r̲g̲e̲n̲’̲s̲ ̲E̲n̲c̲y̲c̲l̲o̲p̲e̲d̲i̲a̲ ̲o̲f̲ ̲H̲i̲s̲t̲o̲r̲y.  2008 E.D.
“Roman Engineering Feats, FamousFeats.com” May, 2012
Smith, John. A̲ ̲G̲r̲e̲a̲t̲ ̲E̲m̲p̲i̲r̲e̲. Californiam LA; 2010.

May 9th 2016 | Transit of Mercury

The transit of Mercury will occur on May 9th, 2016.

Taken from: in-the-sky.org

Full details will follow in due course.

The exact position of Mercury at the moment of closest approach to the centre of the Sun’s disk will be:

Object Right Ascension Declination Constellation Angular Size
Mercury 03h07m00s +17°26′ Aries 12.1″
Sun 03h06m +17°31′ Aries 31’40”

The coordinates above are given in J2000.0.

THE SKY ON 9 MAY 2016
Sunrise: 06:00
Sunset: 19:58
Twilight from 04:19
until 21:39
All times shown in EDT.

3-day old moon
Age of Moon:
3 days

Rise Culm. Set
Mercury 06:01 12:59 19:56
Venus 05:43 12:30 19:17
Moon 08:55 15:56 22:57
Mars 21:10 02:08 07:02
Jupiter 14:23 20:50 03:21
Saturn 21:46 02:48 07:45

April 25, 2016 Conjunction of Moon and Saturn

Remember conjunction means the closest proximity that these two bodies will reach in their rotations and gyrations.  Look for bright spots following the moon all night long.

 

from http://www.in-the-sky.org astronomical calendar

 

Conjunction between the Moon and Saturn

Mon, 25 Apr 2016 at 15:44 EDT (19 hours ago)
19:44 UTC

Dominic Ford, Editor
From the Conjunctions feed

This event is visible to the naked eye from Virginia Beach.

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The sky at 03:43 EDT on 26 Apr 2016

The Moon and Saturn will make a close approach, passing within 3°18′ of each other.

From Virginia Beach (click to change), the pair will be visible in the morning sky. They will become accessible at around 23:34, when they rise 7° above your south-eastern horizon. They will then reach its highest point in the sky at 03:46, 32° above your southern horizon. They will be lost to dawn twilight at around 05:58, 24° above your south-western horizon.

At the moment of closest approach, the Moon will be at mag -12.4, and Saturn at mag 0.9, both in the constellation Ophiuchus.

The pair will be too widely separated to fit within the field of view of a telescope, but will be visible to the naked eye or through a pair of binoculars.

The precise positions of the Moon and Saturn at the moment of closest approach will be as follows:

Object Right Ascension Declination Constellation Magnitude Angular Size
The Moon 16h58m40s -17°32′ Ophiuchus -12.4 29’48″6
Saturn 16h57m20s -20°50′ Ophiuchus 0.9 18″0

The coordinates above are given in J2000.0. The pair will be at an angular separation of 140° from the Sun, which is in Aries at this time of year.

The sky on 25 April 2016
Sunrise: 06:15
Sunset: 19:46
Twilight from 04:40
until 21:21
All times shown in EDT.

18-day old moon
Age of Moon:
18 days

Rise Culm. Set
Mercury 06:55 14:06 21:17
Venus 05:52 12:19 18:47
Moon 23:02 03:21 08:32
Mars 22:16 03:15 08:09
Jupiter 15:19 21:46 04:17
Saturn 22:45 03:46 08:43

Source

The circumstances of this event were computed from the DE405 ephemeris published by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

The positions of deep sky objects in conjunctions are taken from the NGC2000.0 catalogue.

Related news

30 Nov 2015, 19:19 EST Saturn at solar conjunction
03 Jun 2016, 02:25 EDT Saturn at opposition
10 Dec 2016, 06:55 EST Saturn at solar conjunction
15 Jun 2017, 06:05 EDT Saturn at opposition

Image credit

The Moon in conjunction with Venus and Jupiter, with the Very Large Telescope in the foreground. Image © Y. Beletsky, ESO, 2009.

May 21 2016 – Blue Moon!

The Moon will reach full phase – a full moon which will also be a blue moon.

The term blue moon does not refer to any change in the Moon’s color, but is traditionally given to any full moon which is the third of four to fall within one of the Earth’s seasons – defined astronomically to start and end on the Earth’s solstices and equinoxes.

Normally, only three full moons occur in each of the Earth’s four seasons each year. However, there are on average 3.11 full moons within each season. This is because full moons occur on average once every 29.53 days which is slightly less than a third of the length of one of the Earth’s seasons – a quarter of the year. As a result, blue moons occur on average once every 2.7 years.

In past times because full moons were traditionally given names such as the harvest moon and the hunter’s moon, when ran in sequences of three names through each of the seasons. Since there were only three of these names for each season, a fourth full moon was left without a name.

In more modern usage, the term blue moon is often used alternatively to refer to any full moon which is the second to fall within a single calendar month. This usage is a twentieth century innovation which originally seems to have stemmed from a misprint in Sky & Telescope magazine in March 1946.

Coincidentally, however, blue moons also occur once every 2.7 years by that definition, since according to both definitions, a blue moon occurs whenever 13 full moons fall within a single year-long period.

As at any time when the Moon reaches full phase, it will be brighter than at any other time of the month, and will also be visible for much of the night on account of lying almost directly opposite the Sun in the sky.

Over the nights following 21 May, the Moon will rise a little under an hour later each day so as to become prominent later in the night. Within a few days, it will only be visible in the pre-dawn and early-morning sky. By the time it reaches last quarter, around a week after full moon, it will rise at around midnight and set at around noon.

On this occasion the Moon will lie at a declination of -15°40′ in the constellationLibra, and so will be appear highest in the southern hemisphere. It will be visible from all latitudes north of 64°N. Its distance from the Earth will be 402,000 km.

The exact position of the Moon at the time it reaches full phase will be:

Object Right Ascension Declination Constellation Angular Size
The Moon 15h59m30s -15°40′ Libra 29’39”

The coordinates above are given in J2000.0.

THE SKY ON 21 MAY 2016
Sunrise: 05:50
Sunset: 20:08
Twilight from 04:05
until 21:53
All times shown in EDT.

15-day old moon
Age of Moon:
15 days

Rise Culm. Set
Mercury 05:12 11:55 18:38
Venus 05:40 12:42 19:44
Moon 20:05 00:32 05:52
Mars 20:05 01:05 05:59
Jupiter 13:37 20:04 02:34
Saturn 20:55 01:57 06:54

Feats of Roman Engineering

Roman engineering was far ahead of its time.  Ancient Rome had roads and aqueducts which made Romans more comfortable and cleaner. They helped the Romans travel easier to reach all the outposts of the Roman Empire.  This is the beginning of the saying all roads lead to Rome.  Over time there were over thousands of miles built by the Romans.  Romans built aqueducts to bring clean water to sites and villages.  The Featured Picture above is of a bridge that is also an aqueduct in Pont Du Guard France.  Over 200,000 gallons of water reached Rome everyday throughout the aqueducts… and even though you could see them all around most of the aqueducts and cisterns (water storage) was underground.  Other Roman feats of Engineering were great buildings used as arenas such as the Colloseum and the Cirucus Maximus for the entertainment of the people. The Circus Maximus could hold almost 750 thousand people, more than any arena today.   Rome’s engineering talent made Rome one of the greatest empires ever.

 

 

 

The Government Systems of Rome

Roman government went through three distinct phases beginning with Romulus the King After Romulus died, a series of six kings ruling ruling as a Monarchy ending with Tarquinn the Proud.  Tarquin the proud was cast out in 510 BC.  For the next 500 years Rome was ruled as a Republic.  At first the Republic was controlled by only the heads of Patrician families.  These families were descended from the Patriarchs of Rome.  They were important and powerful men.  The Patricians elected two mean every year to serve as consuls and administer Romes business.  The Senate was composed of Patricians.  Anyone not in a Patrician family was considered a Plebian, basically a commoner.  These two distinct social classes were formed based on the Government system and they were not allowed to intermarry. Later, plebians would be allowed to participate in government.  In 59BC Julius Ceasar took control of the Empire and was made emporer by the people.  Ceasars rule ended the Roman Republic and began a government of one man rule until the Roman Empire fell in 476 AD.

Ancient Rome’s beginnings.

The city of Rome began from small communities of Latin shepherds, they had settled around the seven hills in Italy near the Tiber River. The river helped them become very sucessful farmers and traders. As time went on the Latin shepherds joined together to to protect themselves and to invade surrounding villages. Over time, the city grew. Legends and myths began to be told about its beginnings. The most famous is the legend that says Rome was started by Romulus and Remus in 753 B.C. Romulus and Remus’ evil uncle left them on the bank of Tiber River, so they were supposedly raised by a wolf, later to be raised by a shepherd. The brother’s true parents were Mars, and a mortal princess. They were heirs to a throne of their settlement. But their evil uncle ruined that chance. When they grew up, Mars told them to build a city in the place they had been rescued. As they were building the city, they fought over the wall and Remus was killed. Romulus became the king of the city, and the city was named Rome. Ancient Rome grew from small settlements to one of the greatest empires in history.