The Big Dipper and The Little Dipper

Reproduced Verbatim from

 

Big and Little Dippers: Everything you need to know

The Big Dipper is easy. And, once you find it, you can find the Little Dipper, too. Plus … learn how the stars of the Big Dipper are moving in space.

A fixture of the northern sky, the Big and Little Dippers swing around the north star Polaris like riders on a Ferris wheel. They go full circle around Polaris once a day – or once every 23 hours and 56 minutes. If you live at temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, simply look northward and chances are that you’ll see the Big Dipper in your nighttime sky. It looks just like its namesake. Once you’ve found the Big Dipper, it’s only a hop, skip and jump to Polaris and the Little Dipper. Follow the links below to learn more about the Big and Little Dippers.

 

A fixture of the northern sky, the Big and Little Dippers swing around the north star Polaris like riders on a Ferris wheel. They go full circle around Polaris once a day – or once every 23 hours and 56 minutes. If you live at temperate latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, simply look northward and chances are that you’ll see the Big Dipper in your nighttime sky. It looks just like its namesake. Once you’ve found the Big Dipper, it’s only a hop, skip and jump to Polaris and the Little Dipper. Follow the links below to learn more about the Big and Little Dippers.

Define – Red Giant

A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses  in a late phase of stellar evolution. The outer atmosphere is inflated and tenuous, making the radius large and the surface temperature low, 5,000 K and lower. The appearance of the red giant is from yellow-orange to red, including the spectral types K and M, but also class S stars and most carbon stars.

The most common red giants are stars on the red-giant branch  that are still fusing hydrogen into helium in a shell surrounding an inert helium core. Other red giants are the red-clump stars in the cool half of the horizontal branch, fusing helium into carbon in their cores via the triple-alpha process; and the asymptotic-giant-branch stars with a helium burning shell outside a degenerate carbon–oxygen core, and a hydrogen burning shell just beyond that.

Mars at opposition 5/22/2016

Mars will be well placed for observation, in the constellation Scorpius. It will be visible for much of the night, reaching its highest point in the sky at around midnight local time.

From Virginia, it will be visible between 20:51 and 05:03. It will become accessible at around 20:51, when it rises 7° above your south-eastern horizon, and then reach its highest point in the sky at 00:59, 31° above your southern horizon. It will become inaccessible at around 05:03 when it sinks to 8° above your south-western horizon.

Mars in coming weeks

Over the weeks following its opposition, Mars will reach its highest point in the sky four minutes earlier each night, gradually receding from the pre-dawn morning sky while remaining visible in the evening sky for a few months.

 

Taken verbatim from In-the-sky.org

 

 

If I was the Mayor

Being the Mayor of my own town would be a great responsibility an interesting challenge. I would have to balance between as much freedom for all while at the same time taking care of things that all the people use and some help those in need.  I think the best way to make this happen is to provide for a free market, very strong economy to provide jobs and with as little government as possible while still helping those in need.

If I was the mayor of my very own town, I would make sure the economy was good for all. I believe a free trade system works best because errors or low quality work themselves out of the system  and pricing and profits are determined by the workers and the customers. I would keep a low tax rate as possible so earners could keep what they earned.  In this way, people would not be as reliant on the government.  We’d have particularly interesting trade items, including things from the local beach. My town would have open jobs that everybody could participate in, and many things to volunteer for. The small city-state would have secure borders, which helps the economy by stopping smuggling and having outsiders undercut prices of locals.
My town would be focused on treating everyone as an individual, no discrimination. Everyone would be considered an individual and judged not by the state but by the people they interact with based on their character.  Everyone would be in charge of themselves, free to work and support themselves as they please and best suits their talents.  Doctors will be required to be nice to families, keeping their well-being in mind. There would be some assistance for families of the very sick and large families as some of them may not be able to afford good healthcare themselves. Nobody will be forced onto anything, my town is about truly living free!

 

Balancing  a free market with a very strong economy to provide jobs and with as little government as possible while assisting those in need and protecting fair business is indeed a huge challenge.  If you listen to the news today, this balance seems to be what everyone is arguing about.   One thing is for sure, you can’t please everyone.

Define – Black Dwarf

A black dwarf is a theoretical stellar remnant, specifically a white dwarf that has cooled sufficiently that it no longer emits significant heat or light. Because the time required for a white dwarf to reach this state is calculated to be longer than the current age of the universe (13.8 billion years), no black dwarfs are expected to exist in the universe yet, and the temperature of the coolest white dwarfs is one observational limit on the age of the universe. A white dwarf is what remains of a main-sequence star of low or medium mass (below approximately 9 to 10 solar masses (M)) after it has either expelled or fused all the elements for which it has sufficient temperature to fuse. What is left is then a dense sphere of electron-degenerate matter that cools slowly by thermal radiation, eventually becoming a black dwarf. If black dwarfs were to exist, they would be extremely difficult to detect, because, by definition, they would emit very little radiation. They would, however, be detectable through their gravitational influence. Various white dwarfs cooled below 3900 K (M0 spectral class) have been found recently by astronomers using MDM Observatory’s 2.4-meter telescope. They are estimated to be 11 to 12 billion years old.

Define – Black Hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—including particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it. The theory of general relativity predicts that a sufficiently compact mass can deform spacetime to form a black hole. The boundary of the region from which no escape is possible is called the event horizon. Although crossing the event horizon has enormous effect on the fate of the object crossing it, it appears to have no locally detectable features. In many ways a black hole acts like an ideal black body, as it reflects no light. Moreover,quantum field theory in curved spacetime predicts that event horizons emit Hawking radiation, with the same spectrum as a black body of a temperature inversely proportional to its mass. This temperature is on the order of billionths of a kelvin for black holes of stellar mass, making it essentially impossible to observe.

Objects whose gravitational fields are too strong for light to escape were first considered in the 18th century by John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace. The first modern solution of general relativity that would characterize a black hole was found by Karl Schwarzschild in 1916, although its interpretation as a region of space from which nothing can escape was first published by David Finkelstein in 1958. Black holes were long considered a mathematical curiosity; it was during the 1960s that theoretical work showed they were a generic prediction of general relativity. The discovery of neutron stars sparked interest in gravitationally collapsed compact objects as a possible astrophysical reality.